September 29, 2006 By Gina M. Scott
There are 16 million people in Brazil who are illiterate, and 22 percent of the population lives below the poverty line. In an attempt to change this, Digital Inclusion is a social program designed to give Brazilians every opportunity to survive in a digital world, by decreasing the digital divide. Digital inclusion focuses on helping those people who do not normally have access to IT&C (Information Technology and Communications) such as the poverty stricken and the people who live in the ghettos (known as "favelas" in Brazil). Through classes and training, low-income people across the country are learning the ins and outs of Internet and technology use.
The idea of digital inclusion, similar to e-inclusion as it is called in the European Union, is supported by three ministries of the Brazilian government -- Science and Technology, Communications and Education Ministries -- and many local cities and states receive funding from the federal government to supplement their own programs. In a world where IT skills are increasingly needed in practically every job, digital inclusion is giving the children, and adults, of Brazil necessary skills for their future.
Belo Horizonte ("beautiful horizon" in Portuguese) is a city located in southeastern Brazil and is the fifth largest metropolitan city in the country. BH (as it is referred to by the residents) has its own specific Digital Inclusion program which is supported by the public and private sector. "The inclusion of citizens in the digital world has contributed to [the reduction] of social exclusion," said Silvana Veloso, BH's Digital Inclusion director. "Access to information and communication is fundamental in the knowledge society." With the increase of IT&C skills, people will improve their economic status. Children who can use the Internet will be better equipped to find scholarships, and so better their education, as well. "The inclusion of a greater number of people in the digital world is reducing costs through the electronic government, where people can use Internet to access the services available by governments, like tax and tribute payment, access to the public employment system, enrollment into public job contests, etc." said Veloso. There are two distinct areas of BH's program: Telecenters and a mobile unit. Each of these options are computer classrooms, and people come and learn how to use computers and the Internet.
The telecenters are built at various places around the city -- sometimes in schools, other times in central buildings -- and each has computers and classes for the public to take advantage of. The classes offered at each center are specified to the demographics of the area, such as specific classes for children, elderly, women or African Americans. Similar to the telecenters are smaller Internet Access Points, which only have two to four computers (as opposed to a whole classroom) and are made for quick access to things such as e-mail, map searches or government service Web sites. By December 2006, 150 new locations will be opened in Belo Horizonte, 60 telecenters and 90 Internet Access Posts. "We have prioritized the construction of the fixed spaces in the neighborhoods, villages and slums so the citizens could keep on using IT&C for the communications, searches and access to public electronic services," Veloso says.
All over the country, community leaders are looking to boost economic development through various initiatives. One key element in many of those initiatives is the use of information technology. When local governments build IT infrastructure, create e-government applications, assist high-tech startups or otherwise focus on technology, they create conditions that draw businesses to their communities and help retain skilled workers. This paper discusses and provides examples of these various ways local government can use technology to ultimately make a community more attractive to businesses, visitors and residents.